Harvey and Lee --- Just the Facts, Please

by John Armstrong

During the past 35 years the JFK assassination has generated thousands of interviews, photographs, reports, books, articles, etc. From the beginning many of these items contained inaccurate and misleading information, sometimes intentional and sometimes unintentional. Authors often added to the confusion by carefully selecting and limiting their "sources" to fit their own preconceived theories. When closely scrutinized, their cited "sources" are often not sources at all and, in some cases, are non-existent.

The Warren Report, a well known example of a "report", often cites "sources" that do not support their conclusions. Researchers who reference reports, books or articles as "source material" are relying upon the validity of the information contained therein. Citing secondary sources is an easy way to cut corners and avoid the tedious and time consuming task of locating source documents. I urge researchers to avoid the temptation to cut corners by relying upon superficial citations, footnotes and opinions from books and reports. Take the time to examine source documents. Then decide for yourself whether the sources used corroborate or disprove the conclusions reached. In the final analysis the quality of our research depends upon the quality of our source documents.


The first version of "Harvey and Lee", written in 1997, chronologized the lives of New Orleans born Lee Oswald and east-European born "Harvey Oswald" beginning in the early 1950's. Their parallel movements were followed from Fort Worth (1952), to New York (1952-1954), to New Orleans (1954-1956) and back to Fort Worth (1956).

Lee Oswald spent two years in the Marine Corps in Japan (1957-1958), while Harvey Oswald remained stateside. When Lee returned to the U. S. in December, 1958, Russian speaking Harvey Oswald took his place. Harvey spent the next 9 months preparing for his "defection" by reading Russian newspapers, listening to Russian records, speaking the Russian language, and promoting communism. Harvey "defected" to Russia (October, 1959) while Lee Oswald remained in the U.S. working with C.I.A. operatives in southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas.

Harvey returned from Russia in June, 1962 and during the next year worked at several menial jobs. When the decision was made to kill JFK it was Harvey, the recently returned "defector", the communist with a Russian wife, who was chosen as the designated patsy. In the late summer and fall of 1963 Lee Oswald impersonated Harvey in order to frame him (Harvey) for the upcoming JFK assassination. The final day of the impersonation and the movements of Harvey and Lee on November 22nd are the subjects of this article.

The "Harvey and Lee" manuscript was submitted to PROBE in the fall of 1997. The original version contained nearly 50% more material than the final version. At the request of the editors I spent many days downsizing the manuscript in order for it to "fit" into two issues of PROBE. Citations and footnotes were not used because they would have added an additional 3 pages to the manuscript. We decided against using footnotes, due in part to my upcoming presentation at the JFK Lancer conference in Dallas where source documents were presented using 187 slides, 5 videos and several audiotapes. Copies of this 2 hour 37 minute presentation, in manuscript and video format (showing source materials), are available from JFK Lancer (714-699-2744).

To write a manuscript or give a presentation involves days and often weeks of preparation. When completed there is often so much information, not to mention footnotes and citations, that it is simply too lengthy. After spending several weeks downsizing "Harvey and Lee" for JFK Lancer it still took over 2 1/2 hours to present. Downsizing a manuscript or presentation often places researchers in a difficult position. If you do not cite sources (PROBE articles), people question where you found the documents. If you do not include minute details, people accuse you of leaving out certain information. If you do cite your sources and do include all of the minute detail, then the editors (PROBE, 4th Decade, Assassination Chronicles, etc.) and program presenters (JFK Lancer, COPA, etc) often ask you to shorten your presentation. Catch-22 --- damned if write too little and damned if write too much.

Recently, a number of questions were raised regarding one of my articles published in PROBE --- "Harvey, Lee and Tippit --- A new look at the Tippit shooting". The Tippit murder is but one piece of the much larger JFK assassination puzzle. To separate the Tippit murder from the JFK assassination is like removing one piece of a finished puzzle. Just as all pieces of a puzzle are linked, pieces of the Tippit murder are linked to events before and after JFK's assassination. Therefore, I will provide witness testimony and statements regarding Harvey and Lee both before and after the Tippit murder.

With the exception of JFK's arrival in Dallas, November 22nd began as an ordinary day. The witnesses whose testimony and names appear in Dallas Police files, FBI reports, the Warren Commission volumes, etc. were ordinary citizens preparing to go about their daily routines. Events of that day caused some of those citizens to casually observe an ordinary looking young man named Oswald --- one of hundreds of people seen by those citizens that day. Whether they saw Oswald in a crowd, boarding a bus, taking a taxi, walking down the street or entering the Texas Theater, these ordinary citizens, who casually observed this man for a brief few seconds, gave their best recollections of him to authorities --- sometimes not until months later. Their stories, with footnotes and detail, were used in this article to reconstruct the movements of Harvey Oswald and Lee Oswald from the TSBD the Texas Theater. Their statements, however strong or weak, are all we have to rely on after 35 years. Criticize them if you will, but they were witnesses to history and we were not.

* * *

Harvey Oswald --- 7:15 am-12:32 pm, November 22, 1963. Harvey left the Paine residence in Irving, TX., and walked 1/2 block to the home of Wesley Frazier arriving around 7:15 am. He and Frazier departed a few minutes later in Frazier's car for the TSBD in Dallas. They arrived at the TSBD parking lot at 7:55 am. Frazier recalled that Oswald wore a "grey, more or less flannel, wool-looking type of jacket". Linnie Mae Randle said "to the best of her recollection Oswald was wearing a tan shirt and grey jacket" (interview by SA Mitchem and Kesler 12/5/63). The following people saw Oswald at the TSBD at the times indicated:

8:00 am --- Wesley Frazier, Bonnie Ray Williams, Danny Arce, Roy Truly, Jack Dougherty

8:00 am until noon --- William Shelley --- "I saw him periodically all morning"

8:30 am --- Wesley Frazier

9:00 am --- James Jarman

10:00 am --- Roy Lewis, Eddie Piper

11:00 am --- Jack Dougherty, Wesley Frazier

11:30 am --- James Jarman, Bonnie Ray Williams

11:50 am --- William Shelley, Danny Arce

12:00 noon --- Jack Dougherty, Eddie Piper

12:15 pm --- Mrs. R.E. Arnold

Harvey Oswald --- 12:33 pm Shortly after the assassination, M.L. Baker entered the TSBD and, accompanied by Roy Truly, ascended the staircase. En route, Baker encountered a man who Mr. Truly identified as an employee --- Oswald. Baker's affidavit of November 22nd (from Dallas Police files) identified Oswald as wearing a "light brown jacket."

Harvey Oswald --- 12:35 pm When interviewed by Captain Fritz on 11/22/63, Oswald said "as he was leaving the TSBD buildng, two men (one with a crew cut) had intercepted him at the front door; identified themselves as Secret Service Agents and asked for the location of a telephone" (CD 354). Oswald was probably mistaken as to the identity of these men. Mr. Pierce Allman, who had brown crew cut hair, and Terrence Ford, of WFAA TV, ran into the TSBD a few minutes after the shooting. They entered the front door of the building, emerged into a hallway and there met a white male who they could not further identify. Allman asked this person for the location of a telephone. Oswald watched as Allman used the phone and Oswald then left the TSBD and walked east on Elm.

The bus ride --- On November 22nd, Oswald told Dallas Police Captain Fritz that he went home by bus.

Mary Bledsoe rented a room to Oswald for $7 per week beginning on October 7th. Oswald, acknowledging payment of his rent, signed her calendar (Mrs. Bledsoe's son sold the signed page from her calendar for $5 --- Vol 6 pg 401).

On October 12 Oswald received a phone call at Bledsoe's house. From that conversation Bledsoe gathered that Oswald's wife was going to soon have a child (Vol 6 pg 427). Bledsoe became uncomfortable with Oswald and asked him to find another place to live, which he did on October 14th --- he moved to 1026 N. Beckley.

On November 22nd, at approximately 12:35 pm Bledsoe boarded the bus at at St. Paul and Elm and sat across the aisle from the driver. This bus, identified as the "Marsalis-Ramona-Elwood", was driven by Cecil McWatters (vol 2, page 292 WC; also WC exhibit #378). A few blocks later the bus stopped to pick up a passenger. Bledsoe recognized the passenger as Oswald when he boarded the bus. He passed by her while walking toward the rear of the bus (Bledsoe interview by SA Richard Harrison 11/23/63). When the bus became stalled in traffic, Oswald again passed by Bledsoe, this time while walking toward the front of the bus. Oswald obtained a transfer from McWatters and exited through the front door.

When interviewed on November 23rd, 1963, Bledsoe remembered that Oswald wore "a brown shirt with holes in the elbows and "ragged grey work pants". Bledsoe was the only witness on the bus who paid any attention to Oswald, probably because she knew him, and thus was able to identify the clothing he wore (as of November 23rd).

Before her WC testimony Bledsoe prepared notes, at the suggestion of SS Agent Forrest Sorrels, in order to refresh her memory. Reading from notes to refresh a witnesses testimony is, as any lawyer knows, not uncommon in courtroom proceedings. It is allowed in all state and federal court proceedings (Federal Rules of Evidence --- Rule 612 and Rule 803-S).

Cecil McWatters was interviewed on November 22nd and 23rd. On November 22, McWatters was driving the "Marsalis, Ramona, Elwood, Munger" bus run, known as run 1213. McWatters, with his time checked by the company dispatcher, arrived on schedule at St. Paul and Elm at 12:36 pm. At Elm and Griffin "I come to a complete stop, and when I did, someone come up and beat on the door of the bus, and that is about even with Griffin St" (Vol 2, pg 264). The man boarded the bus, paid his 23 cent fare, and "he took the third chair back on the right" (CE 343). Mary Bledsoe, sitting across from McWatters, identified the man as her former tenant --- Lee Harvey Oswald.

Near Poydrus, when the bus became tied up in traffic, a man got out of the car in front of the bus, walked back to the bus and told Whaley the President had been shot. An unknown woman and Oswald got up from their seats, asked for and obtained bus transfers from McWatters and left the bus (CE 343). McWatters told the Warren Commission "yes, sir; I gave him one (bus transfer) about two blocks from where he got on...the reason I recall the incident, I had --- there was a lady that when I stopped in this traffic, there was a lady who had a suitcase and she said, I have got to make a 1 o'clock train at Union Station ... so I gave her a transfer and opened the door and as she was going out the gentlemen I had picked up about 2 blocks asked for a transfer and got off at the same place in the middle of the block where the lady did...it was the intersection near Lamar St." (Vol 2, pg 264, 265). Oswald's transfer was valid for 15 minutes or until the next scheduled bus after the time of issue.

After departing McWatters bus, Oswald walked two blocks south on Lamar St. and said to William Whaley "may I have this cab?" ( Vol 2, pg 256). After Oswald left the bus two policemen boarded the bus and informed McWatters and passengers of the assassination. They questioned each passenger to see if they were carrying weapons (CE 2641). It would be interesting to find out if police boarded any other city buses looking for passengers carrying weapons.

Interviewed on November 22nd, McWatters did not mention or identify the clothing worn by Oswald. Before the Warren Commission McWatters said "to me he had on just work clothes, he didn't have on a suit of clothes, and some type of jacket. I would say a cloth jacket" (Vol 2, pg 279). When taken to the DPD that evening for a lineup, McWatters picked a man "whom he said is the only one in the lineup who resembles the man who had ridden on his bus on November 22nd, 1963. He emphasized that he cannot specifically identify him (Oswald) as being on his bus or as being the person who made the remark to the effect that the President was shot in the temple" (interview of McWatters by SA Odum and Ellington 11/23/63).

Roy Milton Jones was not interviewed until March 30, 1964. Jones said that a "blond woman and a dark haired man boarded the bus approximately six blocks before Houston Street. The man sat in the seat behind him and the woman occupied a seat further to the rear of the bus. When the bus was stopped in traffic, and prior to the appearance of the police, the woman left the bus by the rear door to catch a train at the depot (CE 343) and the man who was sitting behind him (Oswald) left the bus by the front door while the bus was in the middle of the block (CE 2641). Jones "emphasized he did not have a good view of this man at any time and could not positively identify him as being identical with Lee Harvey Oswald. He said he was inclined to think it might have been Oswald only because the bus driver told him so".

When interviewed four months later by the FBI, Jones said the man sitting behind him was wearing a "light blue jacket and gray khaki trousers". Jones had seen this nondescript and unknown man, who sat behind him four months earlier, for a brief few seconds. Mr. Jones should be commended for remembering anything at all about this man.

Laughing matter. McWatters picked up a passenger "between the corner of Poydras and Elm and the corner of Commerce and Houston". McWatters said after turning onto Houston Street, he proceeded across the Houston Street viaduct to Oak Cliff, and then turned south on Marsalis Street. After McWatters turned south on Marsalis Street he said to a male passenger "I wonder where they shot the President". The man replied, "they shot him in the temple".

McWatters continued south on Marsalis and "picked up an old lady at the corner of Vermont and Marsalis". McWatters, who stated "she was at least 55 or 60 years of age," did not recall ever seeing her before. He asked her if she "had heard that the President had been shot. She told McWatters not to joke about such a matter, and he told her that if she did not believe him to ask the man sitting behind him. She looked at this man, who was the one who had told McWatters that the President had been shot in the temple, and said "why he's smiling; you're joking!"

McWatters continued south on Marsalis and remembered letting the smiling man off the bus "south of Saner Avenue." (interview of McWatters by SA Odum and Ellington 11/23/63). The smiling man, described by McWatters as a "teenager, about 5'8", 155 lbs, medium build, slim faced," was later identified as Roy Milton Jones, who regularly rode McWatters bus. In fact, McWatters said "the man rode with me the next day," November 23rd (vol. 2 pg 280). McWatters memory of where the young man got off the bus proved correct. Jones lived one block south of Saner Avenue at 512 E Brownlee Avenue.

The bus transfer, which McWatters gave to Oswald, was found in Oswald's left shirt pocket by Detective Sims at 4:05 pm that afternoon. The transfer, issued by the Dallas Transit System, was easily traced to McWatters (see below). McWatters was picked up and transported to Dallas Police headquarters shortly after 6:00 pm where he was asked to identify, from a police lineup, the man who boarded and left his bus on Elm Street around 12:40 pm earlier that day.

Bus transfer. A photograph, and not the original bus transfer, was entered into evidence as exhibit 381-A; WC Vol 16, pg 974). Mr. FF Yates, Division Superintendent, Dallas Transit System, advised that company drivers get the amount of transfer books (50 transfers to a book) they think they will need when they go on duty each day. The driver tears off the first transfer of each book and writes his badge number on the back of this transfer. Yates produced transfer No. 4451 which was the first transfer on a book numbered 4451 through 4500, given to McWatters on the morning of November 22nd. McWatters badge number, 195, appeared on the back of this transfer.

Each driver is issued a punch which produces a unique punch mark. (interview of FF Yates by SA Lee and Barrett 3/10/64). Oswald requested and received bus transfer No 4459 from McWatters near Poydras and Elm as he was leaving the bus. Bus transfer No. 4459 was found in Oswald's left shirt pocket by Detective Sims at 4:05 pm on November 22nd (along with five live rounds of .38 caliber pistol shells --- WC Sims Exhibit A, Vol 21, pg 514).

The original transfer was examined by National Archives Specialist Steve Hamilton at my request. On October 6, 1998 Mr. Hamilton wrote that the original bus transfer "does appear to have creases in it consistent with folding". When questioned by Dallas Police Captain Fritz Oswald admitted this transfer was given to him by the bus driver when he left the bus after being stalled in traffic (CE 2003 pg 37B).

The police find McWatters --- McWatters explained to the Warren Commission how a bus driver can be located from markings on a bus transfer. McWatters said "if they have any complaint, any transfers brought in to him (supervisor), he has a list. When he looked at the punchmark he knows the man's name, and his badge number" (Vol 2, pg 291).

McWatters was picked up and transported to Dallas Police headquarters shortly after 6:00 pm. When shown bus transfer No. 4459 McWatters said "yes, that is the transfer I issued because it had my punch mark on it ... I only gave two transfers going through town on that trip (from North Dallas south to Oak Cliff) and that was at the one stop of where I gave the lady and the gentlemen that got off the bus, I issued two transfers. But that was the only two transfers were issued". (Vol 2 pg 268-270).

Time Stamp --- McWatters was questioned by the Warren Commission to explain the bus transfer. McWatters said "all transfers issued on this run from north (Lakewood) to south (Marsalis) showed a time of 1:00 pm and that 1:00 pm was shown on the transfer exhibited to him" (FBI interview by Odum and Ellington 11/23/63). The "1 0" that appears at the bottom of this transfer indicates the transfer is valid until 1:00 pm. Bus drivers, according to company rules, were supposed to have punched transfers at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour. But McWatters punched his transfers by the hour. WC Attorney Ball asked him "In other words, what you do is punch on the hour rather than the 45 and 15 minutes usually?" "Yes", said McWatters. "In other words, when I am going one way at 1 o'clock, coming back from the other end of the line I set them at 2. I am back in there at, my next trip I am back in there at Lamar Street, I think it is 1:38 but I always set them at 2 o'clock" (Vol 2 pg 285, 286).

Punch Mark --- All of the bus lines operating out of the east Dallas division were listed on the transfers. Bus lines ran in both directions --- north/south/north; east/west/east, etc. McWatters bus ran from Lakewood (North Dallas) to the end of Marsalis (South Dallas/Oak Cliff) and back to Lakewood (North Dallas). Bus transfers were issued to passengers to allow them to transfer to another bus.

To keep a passenger from using the transfer pass for a return trip on the same bus, a punch system was used. McWatters testified "Each driver has a different punch. They are all registered" (Vol 2 pg 290). "While at Marsalis (heading toward the southern end of Marsalis) I would punch the Lakewood; when I would leave Marsalis coming toward Lakewood (heading north), I would have "Lakewood" on the front of my bus (referring to the "scroll" sign above the windshield indicating a bus's destination) but I would punch the transfer Marsalis". Transfer #4459, found by DPD officer Sims in Oswald's left front shirt pocket, was punched "23. Lakewood" with McWatters unique punch mark. "Lakewood" indicated McWatters had issued this pass after he left Lakewood (North Dallas) en route to the south end of Marsalis (McWatters' WC testimony, Vol 2, pg 292).

The brown shirt. Linnie Mae Randle recalled Oswald "wearing a tan shirt and grey jacket on the morning of November 22." DPD Officer Baker recalled Oswald was wearing a light brown jacket when he and Roy Truly encountered Oswald in the TSBD shortly after 12:30 pm (affidavit by ML Baker, 11/22/63).

The next person who identified Harvey Oswald's brown shirt was Mary Bledsoe (FBI interview by SA Harrison and Weir, 11/24/63). She said he was wearing "ragged grey work pants, and a brown shirt with holes in the elbows."

Also on the bus was McWatters and Jones, who were not asked about Oswald's clothing until they appeared before the WArren Commission four months later. At time they said Oswald had on a light blue jacket. The Warren Commission concluded they had not seen Oswald wearing a light blue jacket.

The next person who identified Harvey Oswald's brown shirt was cab driver William Whaley. On November 23rd he said his passenger "had on a dark shirt with white spots of something on it" (Whaley affidavit CE 2003 pg 64). In testimony before the Warren Commission Whaley said "he had on a brown shirt with a little silver like stripe on it. His shirt was open three buttons down here. He had on a t-shirt." (WC Vol 2, pg 255).

When Oswald arrived at N. Beckley, housekeeper Earlene Roberts said "I don't recall what type of clothing he was wearing" (Earlene Roberts affidavit 12/5/63). Mrs. Roberts said "he went to his room for a few minutes. Then I noticed he had a dark color jacket on, the type that zips up the front."

FBI Agent Bardwell Odum, who observed Oswald as he was being brought out the front of the Texas Theater, said Oswald was wearing a "brown jacket". Other witnesses mistakenly identified Oswald as wearing a "brown jacket" at the time of his arrest. Harvey Oswald was actually wearing a "brown shirt" (not a brown jacket) over a "white t-shirt".

During his first interview on November 22nd, Oswald told Captain Fritz that he had arrived at N. Beckley and changed his trousers. The following day he told Fritz he had changed both his trousers and shirt. Oswald described his dirty clothes as being a reddish colored, long sleeved shirt with a button down collar and grey colored trousers. He indicated that he placed these clothes in the lower drawer of his dresser (FBI memo of James Bookout). One "brown shirt with button down collar" and "one pair of grey trousers" were found at Oswald's N. Beckley address by Dallas Detective Fay M. Turner. Both articles of clothing were inventoried by Dallas Police and listed as "1 brown shirt with button-down collar and 1 pair grey trousers and other miscellaneous men's clothing" (WC --- Turner Exhibit No 1). It would appear that Oswald had changed shirts.

The bus transfer, given to him by McWatters and placed it into the left pocket of the brown shirt, was found by Det. Sims at 4:05 pm. When Bledsoe was shown the brown shirt worn by Oswald when arrested she first said "No, no, that is not the shirt". Then she asked if the shirt had a ragged elbow. When she saw the hole in the right elbow she said "yes, yes, this is the shirt", believing it to be the shirt Oswald wore on McWatters bus. But Oswald had changed shirts. He left the brown shirt with the "button down collar", worn by him on McWatters bus, in the dresser at N. Beckley. He changed into another brown shirt, worn by him when arrested, which was shown to Bledsoe for identification. Mary Bledsoe had simply identified the wrong brown shirt. Someone needs to check to see if the shirt picked up and inventoried by Dallas Police is in the National Archives and if it has holes in the elbows, as described by Bledsoe.

The grey pants, remembered by Bledsoe and Jones from the bus and by cab driver William Whaley, were also found at N. Beckley --- exactly where Oswald had told Fritz he had placed them. They were inventoried by Dallas Police Detective Fay M. Turner. The grey jacket worn by Oswald the morning of November 22, as remembered by Linnie Mae Randle and Wesley Frazier, may have been found by the Dallas Police at the TSBD. They found a heavy, blue colored, "Sir Jac" brand jacket at the TSBD. This jacket was never claimed by anyone (FBI #226) .

Harvey Oswald --- the cab ride. When interviewed on November 22nd, Oswald told Captain Fritz that he rode the bus home. The following day, November 23rd, between 10:25 am and 11:30 am, Captain Fritz again interviewed Oswald. Fritz asked him if he had taken a cab ride after he left the TSBD. Oswald replied "yes, I did ride the cab..."

Drivers trip manifest --- William Whaley's trip manifest (CE 382 Vol 16 pg 974) was clocked in at 5:05 am on November 22nd. Beginning meter readings listed on Whaley's trip manifest consisted of the total number of trips (3591), the units (8308 --- one unit for every 4/10 of a mile) and the total miles (6011). With each successive trip each of these meter readings would automatically increase and be totaled and logged in at the end of each day.

In addition to the automatic meter readings, cab drivers also listed the amount of each fare, the number of passengers, the time "in and out" and the mileage "in and out". At the end of the day, drivers turned in their manifests, which were "date stamped" along with the amount of cash which was recorded on the manifest with a "machine stamp." Whaley's last fare on November 22nd ended at 3:45 pm. His trip manifest was stamped "NOV 22" and 25.15 CA ($25.15 --- the amount of cash turned in by Whaley). Warren Commission Attorney Ball provided Whaley his trip manifest (CE 370) in order to "refresh Whaley's memory".

Lamar to Beckley --- Whaley was sitting in his cab at the Greyhound bus station at Lamar and Jackson around 12:40 pm. He first saw Harvey Oswald walking south on Lamar from Commerce toward his cab. Whaley noticed "the slow way he walked up. He didn't talk. He wasn't in any hurry. He wasn't nervous or anything." Whaley remembered that Oswald said "may I have this cab", to which Whaley replied "you sure can". About that time an old lady said she also wanted a cab. Whaley heard Oswald say "I will let you have this one" but the lady said "no, the driver can call me one".

When interviewed by Dallas Police Captain Fritz on November 23rd at 10:25 am, Oswald told Fritz about the incident involving the old lady. Oswald told Fritz "'yes, I did ride the cab' ... when he [Oswald] got in the cab a lady came up who also wanted a cab, and he [Whaley] told Oswald to tell the lady to take another cab" (CE 2003 --- 137-B). Oswald's and Whaley's stories matched perfectly.

Oswald then said "I want to get to the 500 block of North Beckley". Whaley described Oswald as "small, five feet eight inches, slender, had on a dark shirt with white spots of something on it and grey khaki pants which looked like they had been slept in" (FBI interview by SA Hardin 11/23/63). He looked like "he was 25 or 26 years old" (CE 2003, pg 64) and had a bracelet on his left wrist. Whaley remembered Oswald's "t-shirt was a little soiled around the collar". Whaley dropped Oswald off about 20 ft north of the intersection of Neely and Beckley. He did not remember which direction Oswald walked after he left the cab.

Oswald's stretchband bracelet --- Whaley noticed Oswald's shiny bracelet on his left wrist. He explained to the Warren Commission "I always notice watchbands, unusual watchbands, and identification bracelets like these, because I make them myself ... It was just a common stretchband identification bracelet. A lot of them are made of chain links and not stretchbands (Vol 2 pg 293). Stretchbands are unusual because there is very few of them". A photograph of Oswald taken shortly after his arrival at DPD headquarters shows a bracelet on his left wrist. This bracelet was removed from Oswald's left wrist at DPD headquarters and later photographed. "One I.D. stretch band with 'Lee' inscribed" is listed on the DPD property form (Dallas Archives --- Box 1, folder 8, item 1).

500 Beckley or 700 Beckley? --- Whaley said "when he got back to the Union Terminal he made an entry of the trip (to N Beckley) on his manifest for the day". WC Attorney Belin asked Whaley why he wrote down the destination of his passenger (Oswald) as 500 N. Beckley instead of 700 N. Beckley. Whaley replied "because that is what he told me and that is what I remember when I wrote the trip up" (WC testimony of Whaley --- Vol 6 pg 433).

Identifying Oswald --- The next morning Whaley saw a photograph of Oswald in the newspaper. Whaley said "I told my superior that that had been my passenger that day (November 22nd) at noon. They called up the police and they came up and got me. The Dallas Police came down and took me down and the FBI was waiting there" (at the DPD --- WC testimony of Whaley Vol 2, pg 260). Whaley was interviewed by FBI SA Hardin who showed Whaley a New Orleans Police Department photograph of Oswald. Whaley said it "is definitely the photograph of the man whom he drove in his cab November 22, 1963".

Police Lineup --- Whaley was then taken to a lineup in the Dallas Police Department lineup room where he again identified Oswald. Whaley "without hesitation stated that Oswald is definitely the man whom he drove in his cab on November 22,1963".

Researchers have occasionally criticized Whaley for identifying Oswald as the number 3 man in the lineup and then identified him as the number 2 man in the lineup. A simple reading of Whaley's testimony in Vol 6, pgs 432, 433 is all that is required to clear up this alleged inconsistency. Whaley said "I try to tell you exactly what happened, to the best of my ability, when they brought Oswald out in the lineup of four. He was the third man out. I don't know which way they count them". Whaley said "they put the first man out on the right, and the last one on my left, as near as I can remember". Whaley, in his mind, thought the first man walking to his right was number 1. The second man was number 2, the third man as number 3 and the man on the left as number 4. Whaley, counting from right to left, identified Oswald as the number 3 man. The Dallas Police, counting from left to right, identified Oswald as the number 2 man. Whaley went on to say "No 2 from my left. no. 3 from my right".

Some researchers have also criticized Whaley for allegedly signing a statement which identified Oswald in the Police lineup before he was taken to the lineup. Again, a reading of Whaley's testimony in Vol 6, page 430 is all that is required to clear up this alleged inconsistency. Whaley explained "they wrote it out on paper, and this officer, Leavelle, I think that is his name, before he finished and before I signed he wanted me to go with him to the lineup, so I went to the lineup, and I come back and he asked me which one it was, which number it was, and I identified the man, and we went back up in the office again, and then they had me sign this. That is as near as I can remember."

Driving time from Lamar to Beckley --- An inconsistency pointed out by researchers is the original time required to drive from the Greyhound Bus Station to North Beckley. Whaley, when first interviewed by the WC on March 12, 1964, said it took him 9 minutes to drive Oswald to N. Beckley. Whaley was asked "Now on this particular trip with Oswald, do you recall the lights being with you?" Whaley replied, "they were with me sir; for I timed them that way before I took off. Because I made that so much that I know the light system and how they are going to turn". When interviewed again on April 8, 1964 he says it took less than 5 minutes. I do not understand why or how Whaley's trip of 2 4/10 miles could take 9 minutes to drive. I, accompanied by fellow researchers Malcolm Blunt, Stan Clark and Bill Drenas drove the same route at normal speed. It took just over 5 minutes and I drove this route several times.

Harvey Oswald at the Texas Theater --- It is not known how Harvey got from the corner of Beckley and Zang at 1:03/1:04 pm to the Texas Theater at approximately 1:10 pm (Jim Marrs videotaped interview with Butch Burroughs). Oswald purchased popcorn from Burroughs around 1:10 pm and then took a seat in the lower level next to Jack Davis (Jim Marrs interview w/ Davis) while the opening credits to the movie War is Hell appeared on the screen at 1:20 pm (Dallas Morning News, 11/22/63). Harvey was arrested in the Texas Theater about 1:50 pm wearing the brown shirt that he had obtained from his room at 1026 N. Beckley.


Lee Oswald --- 7:30 am, November 22, 1963 --- J.W. "Dub" Stark was the owner of the Top 10 Record Store located at 338 W. Jefferson in Oak Cliff. The store still exists and is across the street and a block and a half west of the Texas Theater. On December 3, 1963 SA Carl E. Walters wrote a memo to SAC, Dallas. The memo stated "On 12/3/63, Mr. John D. Whitten, telephonically advised that he heard Lee Harvey Oswald was in the Top 10 Record Shop on Jefferson on the morning of 11/22/63. Oswald bought a ticket of some kind and left. Then some time later, Oswald returned to the record shop and wanted to buy another ticket. Whitten requested that his name not be mentioned in any way, as it could hurt his business". News reporter Earl Golz confirmed this story in his interview with Mr. Stark (notes of Earl Golz). This story was further confirmed by Top 10 Record store employee Louis Cortinas, 18 years old in 1963, also in an interview conducted by Earl Golz (notes of Earl Golz). For interested parties, Dale Myers interviewed Mr. Stark in 1997. This interview is described on page 57 of Dale Myers book, With Malice.

Lee Oswald --- 8:30 am, November 22, 1963 --- Lee Oswald entered the Jiffy store, 310 S. Industrial, Dallas, TX., about 8:30 am. Fred Moore, the store clerk said "identification of this individual arose when he asked him for identification as to proof of age for purchase of two bottles of beer. Moore said he figured the man was over 21 but the store frequently requires proof by reason of past difficulties with local authorities for serving beer to minors. This customer said, sure I got ID and pulled a Texas drivers license from his billfold. Moore said that he noted the name appeared as Lee Oswald or possibly as H. Lee Oswald. As Moore recalled, the birth date on the license was 1939 and he thought it to have been the 10th month." (interview of Fred Moore by SA David Barry 12/2/63).

Lee Oswald --- 9:00 am, November 22, 1963 --- Lee Oswald returned to the Jiffy Store a half hour later. Oswald "returned in less than a half hour to buy two pieces of Peco Brittle at five cents each which he consumed on the premises. Moore remarked to him (Oswald) in the form of a question, Candy and beer? as he considered this to be an odd combination. The man seemed to be nervous while in the store pacing the aisles as he ate the candy". (interview of Fred Moore by SA David Barry 12/2/63).

Lee Oswald --- 12:30 pm, November 22, 1963 --- a blowup of the Dillard photograph taken within minutes of the shooting shows a man, although very faint, in the west end window of the 6th floor of the TSBD (The Search for Lee Harvey Oswald, pg 109). This man appears to be wearing a white t-shirt and his hairline closely resembles earlier photographs of Oswald's hairline.

Arnold Rowland said "I observed the two rectangular windows at the extreme west end of the TSBD on the next to the top floor were open. I saw what I believed to be a man standing about 12-15 feet back from the window on the right. He appeared to be slender in proportion to his height, was wearing a white or light colored shirt, either collarless or open at the neck. He appeared to have dark hair. He also appeared to be holding a rifle with scope attached, in a ready position or in military terminology, port arms" (CE 358). Rowland's description matches the man in the Dillard photograph. Rowland also described a second man on the 6th floor --- "a negro gentleman ... he was very thin, an elderly gentleman, bald or practically bald. He had on a plaid shirt. I think it was red and green. He was 5'8". 5'10", in that neighborhood" (WC testimony of Rowland Vol 2, pg 188).

Carolyn E. Walther was standing on the west side of Houston Street. Just before the motorcade arrived she looked up at the TSBD and saw two men in an upper floor window, one of whom was holding a rifle with the barrel pointed downward. She described the rifle as being considerably shorter and fatter than the rifle which Oswald owned. The man carrying the gun was blond or light haired and was wearing a white shirt. The other man was wearing a brown suit coat. (CD 77 pg 24,25)

Ruby Henderson, standing across the street from the TSBD also saw two men on an upper floor of the building --- one wearing a white shirt and one wearing a dark shirt.

Robert B. Fischer and Robert Edwards were standing on the southwest corner of Elm and Houston directly across the street from the TSBD. Fischer saw the head and shoulders of a man wearing a white t-shirt or possibly a light sport shirt. The man was staring in the direction of the triple underpass.

Howard Brennan saw a man in an upper floor of the TSBD shortly before the motorcade arrived and described him as a "slender white male in his early thirties wearing light colored clothing."

Richard Randolph Carr --- 12:28 pm - 12:40 pm --- Carr observed a man looking out the top floor of the TSBD moments before the shooting. He described the man as having an athletic build, wearing horn rim glasses, and wearing a brown coat. Minutes after the assassination Carr walked north on Houston toward the TSBD. Carr saw the man he had seen in the TSBD walk toward him on Houston. This man turned right (Carr's right) on Commerce, walked one block to Record Street and got into a 1961 or 1962 light colored Nash Rambler station wagon driven by a "young negro man." The station wagon, just north of the intersection of Commerce and Record, was last seen by Carr heading in the direction of the TSBD --- two blocks north and one block west (CD385).

Eight witnesses saw either a man wearing a white shirt, holding a rifle or a man wearing a brown coat, in an upper floor of the TSBD. Minutes after the shooting the man in the white shirt may have gotten into a Rambler station wagon while the man in the brown coat may have walked south on Houston Street.

Lee Oswald --- the Nash Rambler stationwagon --- 12:40 pm November 22, 1963

Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig stated "he crossed to the south side of Elm Street in front of the TSBD building ... He stated that at that time he heard a shrill whistle, looked up, and saw a man running across the lawn toward Elm Street coming from the direction of TSBD building. He stated he also noticed an automobile traveling west on Elm, which he feels was a white Nash Rambler station wagon with a luggage rack on top. He stated he observed the driver look at the man running down the hill, then observed the driver stop at the curb. He stated the man on foot got in the Rambler and they left going west on Elm Street" (FBI Report by SA Keutzer, 11/25/63). The man driving this station wagon struck Craig, at first, "as being a colored male. He was very dark complected, had real dark short hair" (WC testimony of Craig Vol 6, pg 266). Craig described the man on foot as "white male in his twenties, five nine, five eight, something like that; about 140 to 150; had kind of medium brown sandy hair". Question: Is the Nash Rambler station wagon driven by a "negro male," seen by Roger Craig, the same Nash Rambler driven by a "negro male" seen by Richard Carr moments earlier and three blocks away?

Marvin Robinson was traveling west on Elm Street shortly after the assassination. Robinson stated that after he had crossed Houston Street and was in front of the TSBD building a light colored Nash station wagon suddenly appeared before him. He stated this vehicle stopped and a white male came down the grass covered incline between the building and the street and entered the station wagon after which it drove away in the direction of the Oak Cliff section of Dallas (interview of Robinson by SA Almon and Rice 11/23/63).

Mr. Roy Cooper was "driving his car and following his boss who was driving a Cadillac. They were coming south on Houston and had to wait for the parade and the incident happened shortly after they reached this intersection. Cooper observed a white male somewhere between 20 and 30 years of ago wave at a Nash Rambler station wagon, light colored, as it pulled out and was ready to leave from Elm and Houston. This station wagon pulled out real fast in front of the Cadillac driven by his boss and his employer had to stop abruptly and nearly hit this Nash Rambler. (interview of Robinson by SA Almon and Rice 11/23/63). The Nash Rambler was last seen driving under the triple overpass heading toward Oak Cliff.

Witnesses to the Tippit shooting
Mr. Clark, a barber at the 10th Street Barber Shop, 620 E. 10th, told SA Carl Underhill (11/29/63) that he "had seen a man whom he would bet his life on was Oswald passing the shop in a great hurry and had commented on same to a customer in the chair". The barber shop is 3 blocks north of Jack Ruby's apartment, where Lee Oswald had been seen the previous night by a guest of Ruby's next door neighbor (interview with Helen McIntosh).

William Lawrence Smith was walking east toward the Town and Country Cafe (604 E 10th) a few minutes after 1:00 pm. Smith "felt sure that the man who walked by him going west on 10th St. was Lee Harvey Oswald" (interview of Smith by Brookhart 1/13/64). At this time, approximately 1:04 pm, "Harvey Oswald" was a mile away --- seen by housekeeper Earlene Roberts standing at the bus stop on the corner of Zang and Beckley.

Jimmy Burt, across the street from the construction site where W.L Smith was working, watched the same man as he came from the direction of the Town and Country Cafe and continued walking west on 10th. Burt described him as a white male, approximately 5'8", wearing a light colored short jacket (interview of Burt by SA Christianson and Acklin 12/16/63). Burt watched as the man passed them and continued walking west toward Patton. As the man approached Tippit's patrol car, Tippit rolled down his passenger side car window and spoke to this man.

William Arthur Smith was with Burt at the time and described the same man seen by he and Burt as "a white male, about 5'7" to 5'8", 20 to 25 years of age, 150-160, a white shirt, light brown jacket and dark pants (interview of Smith by SA Ward and Basham 12/13/63). Both Burt and Smith watched this unknown man as he walked toward Patton, approached the squad car, spoke with Tippit, and then shot him.

Jack Roy Tatum was driving east on 10th St. As he "approached the squad car, he noticed this young white male with both hands in the pockets of his zippered jacket leaning over the passenger side of the squad car". "It looked as if Oswald and Tippit were talking to each other. There was conversation. It did seem peaceful." Tatum swore "he had on a light colored zipper jacket, dark trousers and what looked like a t-shirt on". He also remembered Oswald "as having dark hair, dark eyes of medium build and around 5'10". At the point where Tatum drove slowly past Tippit's squad car, he was less than 10 ft from Oswald. Tatum did not see Oswald wearing a brown shirt, just a white t-shirt. (HSCA --- Moriarty 2/1/78)

WW Scoggins said Oswald wore dark trousers and a light shirt.

Domingo Benavides remembered "the back of his head seemed like his hairline sort of went square instead of tapering off. His hair didn't taper off, it kind of went down and squared off." Oswald's hairline, as we know from numerous photographs taken on November 22nd, extended well down his neck and past his collar line --- it was not "squared off" as described by Domingo Benavides.

Helen Markham said Oswald was "wearing a light gray looking jacket and kind of dark trousers" (WC testimony, Vol pg 502).

Ted Callaway described Oswald to DPD Officer HW Summers as "white male, 27, 5'11",165 lbs, black wavy hair, fair complected, wearing light gray Eisenhower type jacket, dark trousers and a white shirt" (CE 705, pg 27). When interviewed many years later, Callaway again said "he had on a white Eisenhower type jacket and a white t-shirt" --- again no brown shirt, just a white t-shirt.

Mary Brock was the next person who identified Oswald's clothing. She said Oswald was wearing "light clothing, a light colored jacket and with his hands in his pocket" (interview of Brock by SA Kesler and Mitchem 1/22/64).

DPD dispatch 1:22 pm: Last seen about the 300 block East Jefferson. He's a white male about 30 5'8". Black hair, slender, wearing a white jacket, white shirt and dark slacks.

DPD dispatch 1:33 pm: w/m/30 5'8", very slender build, black hair, a white jacket, white shirt and dark slacks.

DPD dispatch 1:45 pm: Have information a suspect just went in the Texas Theater on West Jefferson ... supposed to be hiding in balcony.

A few minutes later Dallas Police officers entered the theater through the main doors and were directed to the balcony by a "female employee", probably Julia Postal. At the rear of the theater, in the alley, police were gathering. Some had just arrived from the Tippit murder scene. They entered the rear of the Texas Theater on the lower level and arrested the man wearing the brown shirt. They wrestled Oswald to the floor, handcuffed him, and escorted him out the front of the theater to a police patrol car. There are no reports that anyone checked Oswald's identification at this time. Yet as they took Harvey Oswald out the front of the theater, a DPD officer told Julia Postal "we have our man on both counts". She said this was the first time she heard of Tippit's death and the officers arresting Oswald had identified him, Oswald, to her by calling his name --- "Oswald" (interview with Postal by SA Carter 2/28/64).

Calling out his name? Before Oswald was placed in the police car? Before Detective Paul Bentley removed Oswald's wallet from his left rear pocket? Before Bentley checked his identification en route to the police station? How would anyone know Oswald's name?

Ask the officers who "called out his name" to Julia Postal. These officers, including DPD Captain Westbrook and FBI Agent Barrett, arrived at the rear of the Texas Theater and witnessed the arrest of Harvey Oswald. These officers had just arrived from the Tippit murder scene where WFAA news film showed Dallas police officers looking through Lee Oswald's wallet, complete with Oswald and Hidell identification, and probably his Texas drivers license. They knew the name of their suspect before they left 10th and Patton. When they arrived at the Texas Theater they arrested the wrong Oswald. Lee Oswald, wearing a white t-shirt and without identification, was in the balcony. When Paul Bentley removed Harvey Oswald's wallet from his left rear pocket en route to the DPD headquarters (along with Officers Carrol, Hill, Walker and Lyons), he found identification for "Lee Harvey Oswald" and "A. J. Hidell" --- the same identification found in the wallet left at the Tippit murder scene. It should come as no surprise that one of the wallets and one of the Oswalds disappeared.


You have been provided statements and testimony of witnesses to a few of the events of November 22, 1963. You are encouraged to form your own opinions and conclusions. My conclusion is, of course, that there were two "Oswalds". From FBI interviews, personal interviews, WC documents, etc., it is apparent that many people knew Lee Harvey Oswald by the name "Lee", "Ozzy" and "Oz", the names given and acquired by Louisiana born Lee Harvey Oswald. Other people knew and referred to the Oswald they knew as "Harvey" or "Harv".

"Harvey" was the Russian speaking, communist-promoting Oswald --- the person killed by Jack Ruby. People's descriptions of "Lee Harvey Oswald" often vary widely with respect to eye color, height, weight, hair color and physical characteristics. Lee often got drunk, got into fights and never spoke or read Russian or supported communism. Harvey rarely drank, was never known to get into a fight; he spoke, read and wrote Russian, and supported communism. The character profiles of these two people, as described by dozens of witnesses, are quite different and distinct.

For more background information on "Harvey and Lee" you may want to obtain the "Harvey and Lee" manuscript from PROBE or a videotape of the "Harvey and Lee" presentation from the 1997 JFK Lancer conference.

For those of you who took the time to read this article, I hope you will have a better appreciation of source documents and understand my reasons for not citing opinions or conclusions from books, reports, news articles and other researchers. A lot of time and effort was required to locate the primary source materials necessary to reconstruct this 1 and 1/2 hour segment of November 22nd, 1963. Researching and documenting 24 years of the lives of Harvey and Lee will take a bit longer, but it is "work in progress" and it will be done.

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