Draft 3/6/96, comments appreciated, email@example.com
© Acacia Press, Incorporated
© Acacia Press, Incorporated
These are the same issues addressed by Michael Morrissey in an article which first appeared in The Fourth Decade 1.4 (May 1994) and is available on-line from Lisa Pease's home page. Morrissey quotes Chomsky's own words from the book Manufacturing Consent (NY: Pantheon, 1988) to assert a smaller conspiracy capable of "manufacturing consent" within the media, historical, scientific, and medical professions to implement the cover-up. He also builds a case to suggest Kennedy's policies were significantly changed after his assassination.
This article will propose another answer to Chomsky. It will demonstrate historical precedents and identify an organizational infrastructure capable of implementing the assassination, powerful enough to conceal the truth and motivated to commit the act. It is an answer few Americans will easily accept.
The organization that could have pulled off the Kennedy assassination cover-up is American Freemasonry. Freemasonry is secret society with millions of American members. A British investigative work, Inside the Brotherhood by Martin Short (copyright © 1989), quotes a member of the fraternity to help explain the purpose of the organization:
Freemasonry is a mechanism of social control. It's a feudal pyramid, whereby people of influence in British society can mix with the ordinary bloke and lend a little lustre to his dreary life. But only certain kinds of bloke. Have you ever thought why the police are so cultivated by Freemasonry? I have met scores of policemen throughout my Masonic career, but I haven't met a single fireman or postman. There must be some firemen and postmen in Freemasonry but nowhere near as many policemen, lawyers, local government officials and businessmen. By drawing these kind of people into this network, the landed aristocracy and big business filter their values down through the social structure.On Masonic business dealings:
One of the first things you are taught in Freemasonry is to obey rank. There is a line in the ritual that tells how the workmen building Solomon's Temple were split into small lodges in a way 'best calculated to ensure promotion to merit, preserve due subordination and prevent confusion in the work'. Well, you can forget about merit. Freemasonry is all about due subordination. (pg 136)
This petty corruption becomes second nature to Masons, so that in the end they cannot see how corrupt it is. I know one Mason who used to work as manager of a local water board. As soon as he retired he formed a company with other Masons to tender for pipeline work from the water authority. You can be sure he won a lot of contracts not just because he knew about water but because he was 'on the square'. Freemasonry is insider trading by another name.
I was particularly disturbed by the attitudes of top Masons. I got to know several who are high court judges. In private they talk as if ordinary people are an expendable nuisance. I've also become very friendly with Harley Street surgeons. One told me how he'd invested his exorbitant fees in all sorts of doubtful, money-making rackets. He would brag about them over dinner after the lodge. These people say appalling things about the working man. Once my provincial grand master made a ferociously anti-Labour remark in Open Lodge. I was a local Conservative official at the time but even I was shocked by his sentiments. (pg 135)
American Freemasonry dates back to the revolution and concerns over its influence dates back almost as far. The historical precedent for a massive conspiracy to cover-up an assassination occurred in the early 19th century, when Captain William Morgan was abducted and murdered by Freemasons for his efforts to expose the organization's inner working. The crime, which led to the formation to the first third party political movement in this country, was described in The Address to the People of the United States issued from the United States Anti-masonic Party convention, held in 1830:
In 1826, William Morgan, your free fellow citizen, was, by highly exalted members of the masonic fraternity, with unlawful violence, seized,-- secretly transported through the country more than one hundred miles, to a fortress of the United States, then in charge of freemasons, who had prepared it for his reception,-- there imprisoned, several days and nights, against his utmost efforts to escape,-- and after suffering the most unmanly insults, and the most inhuman abuse, he was privately murdered. Previously to his seizure, numerous meetings of freemasons, in lodges and otherwise, were held for the purpose of contriving and adopting the most certain means of carrying into effect, their unlawful objects upon him. These meeting were attended, and the designs of them approved, by several hundred of the most respectable and intelligent of the masonic brethren. They included legislators, judges, sheriffs, clergymen, generals, physicians, and lawyers. And they proceeded in discharge of, what they deemed, their masonic duties.After the crime was exposed, a massive cover-up was required and executed by the Masonic brotherhood. It was also described in The Address to the People of the United States:
In this alarming emergency, the agents of government seemed paralyzed. Our public institutions for the preservation of tranquillity, and the repression of crime, seemed nugatory.... No arts were left untried by freemasons to baffle the pursuit of truth, and defeat the administration of justice. The lion's grip of the order was upon our courts, and loyalty to that, displaced fealty to the state.The preface to former President John Quincy Adams's 1847 book Letters on the Masonic Institution describes the implementation of the crime:
A large proportion of the constables, justices of the peace, lawyers, judges, sheriffs, and jurymen, of the counties where these acts were performed, were members of the society, and had taken oaths binding them,..., to conceal each other's crimes. The high sheriffs were all masons, and at that time, summoned as grand jurors, at their discretion, any such men as had the common qualifications.
That so many men, at so many separate points, should have acted in perfect concert in such business as they were engaged in, would scarcely be believed, without compelling the inference of some distinct understanding existing between them. That they should have carried into effect the most difficult part of their undertaking, a scheme of the most daring and criminal nature, in the midst of a large, intelligent and active population, without thereby incurring the risk of a full conviction of their guilt and the consequent punishment, would be equally incredible, but for the light furnished by the phraseology of the Masonic oath.The preface goes on to say of the oaths:
Upon the first hasty and superficial glance, a feeling might arise of surprise that the frivolity of its unmeaning ceremonial, and ridiculous substitution of its fictions for the sacred history, should not long ago discredited the thing in the minds of good and sensible men everywhere. Yet upon closer and more attentive examination, this first feeling vanishes, and makes way for astonishment at the ingenious contrivance displayed in the construction of the whole machine. A more perfect agent for the devising and execution of conspiracies against the church or state could scarcely have been conceived.The preface also describes difficulties in energizing the public against the conspirators:
Multitudes preferred to believe the Masonic oaths and penalties to be ceremonies, childish, ridiculous and unmeaning, rather than to suppose them intrinsically and incurably vicious. They refused to credit the fact that men whom they respected as citizens could have made themselves parties to any promise whatsoever to do acts illegal, unjust and wicked. Rather than to go so far, they preferred to throw themselves into a state of resolute unbelief of all that could be said against them.The results of the Anti-masonic movement were described in the Anti-Masonic Scrap Book, published by the National Christian Association in 1883.
The excitement caused by Morgan's abduction and murder lasted ten years. And Daniel Webster, Edward Everett. John Quincy Adams, John Marshal, Wm. H. Seward, Thaddeus Stevens, and other great men condemned the lodge in the strongest languages men can use. The lodges feigned dead in the free States, and hid beyond discussion in the slave. The Anti-masonic army disbanded, and the lodges silently crept back into power.This 19th century event could be dismissed as an irrelevant bit of Masonic history, except upon investigation one finds Freemasonry has not been inactive. It has been identified as the parent of a violent and far right American organization, the Ku Klux Klan. In the book Christianity and American Freemasonry, by William J Whalen, on pages 17-18 we find:
A former Confederate general and Freemason, Nathan Bedford Forrest, founded the Ku Klux Klan and served as its first Imperial Wizard. Albert Pike held the office of Chief Justice of the Ku Klux Klan while he was simultaneously Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction. Pike's racism was well known. He expressed his concept of Masonic brotherhood succinctly: "I took my obligation to White men, not to Negroes. When I have to accept Negroes as brothers or leave Masonry, I shall leave it." Some believe Pike concocted the ritual for the original KKK.In The Ku Klux Klan by William Pierce Randel, on page 200 we learn:
The Klan shared its Protestant restrictiveness with the Masons and more than once sought to capitalize on the parallel. Kleagles commonly remarked to prospects, in an offhand manner, that 'the Klan is, in fact, a Masonic movement.' Many leading Klansmen, in both the old Klan and the new were Masons; [Hiram] Evans himself gained the 32nd degree.In his book Inside the Brotherhood, Martin Short points out, "It seems wherever Masons have common political aims, but cannot pursue them through Freemasonry, they set up parallel public movements (pg 239).
Martin Short also describes how the OSS, later to become the CIA, reintroduced Freemasonry into Italy after WWII as a tool "to prop up a sickly democracy threatened by Soviet-inspired destabilization and the prospect of a communist election victory" (pg 399). From 1970 through 1981 a far right Italian Freemasonic lodge, P2, with links to Ronald Reagan, the Republican party, the CIA, British Intelligence and British Freemasonry are now believed to have been preparing for a coup against "clerico-Communists", should they seize power (pg 399-401). This lodge was disbanded when its activities became public.
The P2 case is a documented modern example of a Freemasonic lodge positioned as an extra-governmental body for the execution a coup. It is therefore not implausible to suggest that the American Freemasonic lodges successfully executed a coup in the United States by assassinating President John F. Kennedy. It should be noted that Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson was identified as a Freemason by Stephen Knight in his book, The Brotherhood, as was Warren Commission appointee, Gerald Ford. Additionally, a Masonic scholar, A. E. Roberts, identifies J. Edgar Hoover, Earl Warren and Sen. R.B. Russell (member of the Warren Commission) as Masons in his book, Freemasonry in American History. It is difficult to reliably determine if other members of the Warren Commission were also Freemasons, because no published records of membership exist. It is clear that millions of American's have taken the Masonic oaths to secrecy and obedience. These would include people in the government and the media, historical, scientific and medical professions.
It is quite possible masonic elements representing many interests conferred and reached a consensus on Kennedy's fate, as occurred in the Morgan case in 1826; each knowing their discussions would be held in confidence.
Their motives would probably be to protect and advance business interests and their social positions (wealth and power). These would include:
"whatever bigotry is in evidence in the United States is exhibited solely by the Roman Catholic hierarchy; that the Canon Law of the Roman Church and the directives of the Pope validate the fears of the people that the dual allegiance of American Catholics is a present danger to our free institutions, and lastly that the people in passing upon the qualifications of a Catholic candidate for the Presidency will be guided by their knowledge of history and their great store of plain old-fashioned common horse sense, and their innate caution not to gamble when their liberties and the national security are at stake.
Among American citizens there should be no question or suspicion of allegiance to any foreign power, but in the case of the Roman Catholic citizen, his church is the guardian of his conscience and asserts that he must obey its laws and decrees even if they are in conflict with the Constitution and laws of the United States."
The Kennedy assassination appears to have been part a campaign of assassinations against a generation of leaders, who posed challenges to the entrenched power structure. The death toll included John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X. Viewed as a whole, one is driven to the conclusion that the anyone advocating or supporting serious social reforms (share the wealth and power) will not be tolerated in a leadership position. You can read The CIA's Greatest Hits by Mark Zepezauer for an overview of the assassination cases. These assassinations suggest the merger of KKK ethics with CIA resources and techniques.
The CIA and modern Freemasonry can be viewed as tools, available to support US strategic interests, business interests. The CIA principally focused on influencing events overseas, Freemasonry's old-boy network used to influence domestic interests. The domestic campaign of social repression and control seems to have moved from assassinations to manipulation of the media and economic reprisals against any person or institution which pose a serious challenge to business interests or the entrenched power structure.
As Americans are bombarded by the media with information on a host of social issues, largely irrelevant to the business community, a massive consolidation of wealth has occurred, labor unions crushed, social welfare programs attacked and media outlets consolidated. It is remarkable that no effective voice has been raised in opposition, until one realizes we have lost those voices. We have a new generation of "pro-business" Democrats and a history of ineffective or dishonest civil rights and union leadership.
A Freemasonic conspiracy addresses all the points raised at the start of this article:
Ought a secret society to exist amongst us whose members can commit murder and yet escape punishment? MASONS HAVE done this, and their brethren ... are sworn to protect them.It also warned us:
Fellow citizens, are men bound by such obligations and possessing such principals, FIT to be rulers of a FREE PEOPLE."
It is to be hoped that an institution whose very principles lead directly to such horrid outrages, and which is entirely made up of dissimulation and fraud, will be completely suppressed in this country and throughout the world, and that a barrier be instituted to prevent it from ever again polluting the earth with its insidious influence. But the public must not expect to accomplish this desirable object without unwanted pains and incessant vigilance; their task is but commencing, and, should they lack in circumspection or perseverance, the monster will yet flourish with more power and commit greater enormities than ever.
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